Thank you, Mr. Chairman. Just a few quick points. We feel somewhat better about the outlook for growth and inflation, but we haven’t really changed our forecasts for ’07 and ’08. So just as we expected over the past few cycles, we currently expect GDP to grow roughly at the rate of potential over the forecast period, which we believe is still around 3 percent, and we expect the rate of increase in the core PCE to moderate a bit more to just below 2 percent over the forecast period. We see somewhat less downside risk to growth and somewhat less upside risk to inflation than we did, but the overall balance of risks in our view is still weighted toward inflation—the risk that it fails to moderate enough or soon enough. The basic nature of the risks to both those elements of our forecast hasn’t really changed.
As this implies, our forecast still has somewhat stronger growth and somewhat less inflation than the Greenbook does. The differences, however, are smaller than they have been. We see the same basic story that the Greenbook does in support of continuing expansion going forward. We have similar assumptions for the appropriate path of monetary policy—at least two, perhaps several, quarters of a nominal fed funds rate at current levels. The main differences between our view about the economy and the Greenbook’s relate first, as they have for some time, to the likely growth in hours; we’re still not inclined to build in a substantial reduction in trend labor force growth. Second, our view is that inflation has less inertia, less persistence, than it has exhibited over the past half-century. Third, we tend to think that changes in wealth have less effect on consumer behavior than does the staff.
We have seen a general convergence in views in the market, as we just discussed, toward a forecast close to this view, close to the center of gravity in this room, and a very significant change in policy expectations as well. We can take some comfort from this, but I don’t think we should take too much. Markets still seem to display less uncertainty about monetary policy and asset prices and quite low probabilities to even modest increases in risk premiums than I think is probably justified.
Let me just go through the principal questions briefly. Is the worst behind us in both housing and autos? Probably, but we can’t be sure yet. If we get some negative shock to income—to demand growth—we’re still vulnerable to a more adverse adjustment in housing prices with potentially substantially negative effects on growth, in part because of the greater leverage now on household balance sheets. How strong does the economy look outside autos and housing? Pretty strong, it seems. We see no troubling signs of weakness, despite the disappointment on some aspects of investment spending. What does the labor market strength tell us about the risk to the forecast? It seems obvious that on balance it justifies some caution about upside risk to growth and more than the usual humility about what we know about slack and trend labor force growth. But I don’t think it fundamentally offers a compelling case on its own for a substantial change to the inflation forecast or the risks to that forecast.
Is there any new information on structural productivity growth? Not in our view. We’re still fairly comfortable with the staff view of around 2 percent or 2½ percent for the nonfarm business sector. I’m not a great fan of the anecdote, but I’ll cite just one. If you ask people who make stuff for a living on a substantial scale, it’s hard to find any concern that they are seeing diminished capacity to extract greater productivity growth in their core businesses. That’s not a general observation, just a small one.
Have the inflation risks changed meaningfully in either direction? I think the recent behavior of the core numbers and of expectations is reassuring. The market doesn’t seem particularly concerned about inflation, and the market is therefore vulnerable to a negative surprise, to a series of higher numbers. Can we be confident we’ll get enough moderation with the current level of long-term expectations prevailing in markets, with the expected path of slack in the economy, and with the range of potential forces that might operate on relative prices— energy, import, and other prices? Again, I think this forecast still seems reasonable, but we can’t be that confident, and we need to be concerned still about the range of sources of vulnerability of that forecast. Another way to frame this question is, Is the inflation forecast consistent with the current expectations for the path of monetary policy acceptable to the Committee? We haven’t fully confronted that issue because we don’t get much moderation with a monetary policy assumption that’s close to what’s in the markets. But I don’t think there’s a compelling case to act at this stage in a way that forces convergence on that. In other words, how tight is monetary policy, and how tight are overall financial conditions today? I don’t think there’s a very strong case for us to induce more tightness or more accommodation than now prevails. There’s a good case for patience and for giving ourselves a fair amount of flexibility going forward, within the context of an asymmetric signal about the balance of risks and a basic judgment that we view the costs of a more adverse inflation outcome as the predominant concern of the Committee.