Transcripts of the monetary policymaking body of the Federal Reserve from 2002–2008.

I think the conduits were more important in some asset classes than others. In credit cards, for example, the conduits were pretty important. But even there they were important in recent years. I think they were important in recent years because spreads kept on coming down and down and deterred the real money investors that traditionally invested in these products—they were no longer interested. Yet the underwriters were able to keep the game going at those low spreads by resorting to selling to conduits and securities lenders and those sorts of things. So over time, if we could deal with some of the issues around confidence and ratings and the other things that may be deterring the real money investors from entering the market, there is a hope of bringing them back and going back not to 2007, when it was conduits and that kind of stuff, but to, say, 2002, when you had real money investors buying these securities.

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