I will be referring to the exhibits that follow the blue International Outlook cover page. Financial markets in foreign economies remain stressed but have not suffered further pronounced deterioration since the October FOMC meeting. As shown at the top of your first exhibit, government bond yields in major industrial economies have dropped, likely reflecting further expected monetary policy easing, lower inflation expectations, and a firming of the belief that economic recoveries are not around the corner. Equity markets, shown in the middle left, have changed only moderately, on net, since your last meeting, compared with large declines in previous months. The emerging-market aggregate CDS spread, shown in the middle, has been volatile but remains elevated. As shown to the right, gross private capital inflows to emerging markets through debt and syndicated loans have continued to trend downward.
The exchange value of the dollar against the major foreign currencies (the black line in the bottom left panel) has moved down a little since the last FOMC meeting. Some bilateral exchange rate movements were substantial, however, with the dollar appreciating markedly against the pound and depreciating against the yen. As shown to the right, the dollar has appreciated somewhat against the currencies of our other important trading partners, driven by movements in the Mexican peso and the Brazilian real. Earlier this month, the dollar registered one of its biggest daily increases against the Chinese renminbi in recent years, although this shows up only as a tiny blip in the chart. We believe that Chinese authorities will allow the renminbi to depreciate somewhat in the coming months; NDF (nondeliverable forward) contracts also imply an expected depreciation of the renminbi against the dollar over the next year or so.
Incoming evidence on economic activity abroad continues to be grim. As shown in line 1 of the table in exhibit 2, we now estimate that foreign economic growth was below 1 percent in the third quarter. Although growth in Canada (line 7) and Mexico (line 12) surprised on the upside, readings elsewhere were generally weaker than expected, with real GDP contracting in the United Kingdom, the euro area, and Japan (lines 4 through 6). As shown by the red bars in the middle left panel, net exports made significant negative contributions to growth in these three economies. Domestic demand (the blue bars) was also soft. Growth in emerging Asia (line 9) was barely positive in the third quarter, reflecting subdued growth in China (line 10) and substantial contractions in most of the newly industrialized economies (shown in the middle right).
With data from the current quarter pointing to greater weakness than we expected and a substantially more pessimistic U.S. outlook, we have further slashed our forecast for total foreign growth to minus 1½ percent in the current quarter and minus 1¼ percent in the next, before a recovery to a positive but still relatively weak average pace of about 1 percent through the remainder of next year. The widespread nature of the economic slowdown in large part seems to reflect trade linkages. As depicted at the bottom, in recent years U.S. economic growth (the black line) and the growth of total real exports of our major trading partners (the green line) have been significantly related. Although foreign exports are affected by many factors in addition to U.S. GDP, the relationship shown and the gloomy outlook for U.S. economic activity through next year paint a bleak near-term picture for foreign exports.
Your next exhibit focuses on the advanced foreign economies in more detail. Data from Europe point to a sharp slowing in the current quarter. The timeliest indicators are PMIs (purchasing managers’ indexes), which, as shown in the top left panel, have plummeted in recent months in both the United Kingdom and the euro area, reaching levels well below those observed during the 2001 downturn. As depicted to the right, in Japan, exports (the black line) and industrial production (the blue line) have contracted during the current quarter, and conditions in the labor market have deteriorated further, as manifested by the decline in the ratio of job openings to applicants (the red line). Indicators from the current quarter in Canada, shown in the middle left, point to weakness in real exports and a continued drop in housing starts. Authorities in advanced foreign economies are attempting to shore up aggregate demand through fiscal stimulus. As listed in the middle right panel, many countries have announced stimulus packages, including Germany, France, and the United Kingdom. We estimate that the actual stimulative content of the packages announced so far is likely to be small but expect that additional measures will be introduced next year. The total fiscal stimulus that we are assuming should boost growth in the advanced foreign economies by ¼ to ½ percentage point at an annual rate from mid-2009 through 2010. The possibility of bigger fiscal initiatives is an upside risk to our outlook for foreign growth.
Many of the foreign central banks have become more aggressive in easing monetary policy, as can be seen at the bottom left. Since the last FOMC meeting, the Bank of England and the ECB have slashed policy rates by a total of 250 basis points and 125 basis points, respectively, and the Bank of Canada and the Bank of Japan have lowered rates by smaller amounts. More rate cuts are expected in all of these economies, which could bring rates in Japan back down to the zero lower bound. As shown on the bottom right, inflation in the advanced foreign economies is now expected to recede at a faster rate than previously projected, reflecting sharp declines in commodity prices as well as diminished resource utilization.
Turning to emerging-market economies, as shown in the top left panel of exhibit 4, the recent behavior of Chinese industrial production, total exports, and imports from Asia is now reminiscent of developments during the year 2001. The plunge in imports from Asia casts doubt on the notion that China has become an independent engine of growth in the region. As depicted to the right, Korean exports and aggregate industrial production in Korea, Singapore, and Taiwan are plummeting. In Mexico, third-quarter output was bolstered by expansion in the agricultural sector, but as shown in the middle left, exports have moved down sharply, and consumer confidence has dropped below 2001-02 levels. In Brazil, too, shown on the right, there has been some softening in exports (the black line), which had been supported by high commodity prices, although industrial production (the blue line) has held up a bit better.
With prospects for exports in the doldrums, policy stimulus has become all the more important to the outlook for emerging-market economies. As noted in the bottom left, monetary easing has continued, with interest rate cuts in many emerging Asian economies, including China and Korea. China, Malaysia, and Brazil have also lowered bank reserve requirements. In addition, fiscal stimulus packages have been announced in a number of economies, most notably China. China’s 16 percent of GDP spending package considerably overstates the ultimate effects on growth as it includes some previously announced projects, its implementation may take longer than announced, and the federal government is slated to pay for only 30 percent. Discounting the headline number, we estimate that the Chinese package could boost growth 1 to 1½ percentage points per year. Other countries, such as Korea and Mexico, have introduced smaller but still sizable packages, which we expect will give some impetus to growth.
In sum, our near-term forecast calls for total foreign growth to be the weakest since 1982, and as sketched out in our alternative simulation in the Greenbook, there would appear to be downside risks even to this forecast.
Your final exhibit focuses on the U.S. trade outlook. Weak global demand has contributed to falling prices for food and metals, which have led a sharp decline in nonfuel commodity prices (the blue line in the top left panel). Oil prices (the black line) also have continued to move down rapidly, but futures prices project some recovery ahead. The fall in commodity prices has exerted downward pressure on U.S. trade prices (shown in the top middle panel); both core import prices and core export prices dropped markedly in October and November, which for import prices were the largest monthly declines in the fourteen-year history of the index. A sense of the extent of weakness in global demand can also be seen in shipping rates (shown to the right), which have taken a nosedive.
As in the 2001 recession, U.S. real exports and imports of goods (shown in the middle left) are now trending down. Imports (the red line) have been moving down all year. The falloff in exports (the black line) is a more recent development and, in part, reflects hurricane-related disruptions and the strike at Boeing. As shown in the table, growth of both real exports of goods and services (line 1) and real imports (line 3) was noticeably weaker in the third quarter than we had previously estimated. For the current quarter, we see both real exports and real imports contracting sharply, reflecting the slowdown in global demand. Looking ahead, our projections for a stronger broad real dollar (shown in the middle right) along with our weaker outlook for foreign growth have led us to revise down sharply our forecasts for exports, especially in 2009. In the near term, our projections for imports have also been marked down considerably. As shown in line 5, the contribution of net exports to U.S. growth is expected to swing slightly negative in the current quarter, following large positive contributions earlier this year. The current quarter’s contribution is considerably weaker than projected in both the October and the December Greenbooks, as last week’s export data surprised us on the downside. Next quarter, with a substantially greater step-down in imports than in exports, we expect the contribution of net exports to U.S. growth to jump back up, before returning to negative territory for the remainder of the forecast period. That concludes our presentation.